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FIWARE.OpenSpecification.Security.PEP Proxy R4 - FIWARE Forge Wiki

FIWARE.OpenSpecification.Security.PEP Proxy R4

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FIWARE WIKI editorial remark:
This page corresponds with Release 4, please refer to Summary of FIWARE Open Specifications for the current Open Specs of the GEs of FIWARE
Name FIWARE.OpenSpecification.Security.PEP Proxy Generic Enabler
Chapter Security,
Catalogue-Link to Implementation Wilma
Owner UPM, Alvaro Alonso

Contents

Preface

Within this document you find a self-contained open specification of a FIWARE generic enabler, please consult as well the FIWARE Product Vision, the website on http://www.fiware.org and similar pages in order to understand the complete context of the FIWARE platform.


Detailed Specifications

Open API Specification

References

Re-utilised Technologies/Specifications

The PEP Proxy GE is based on RESTful Design Principles. The technologies and specifications used in this GE are:

  • RESTful web services
  • HTTP/1.1
  • OAuth 2.0
  • JSON and XML data serialization formats.

Terms and definitions

This section comprises a summary of terms and definitions introduced during the previous sections. It intends to establish a vocabulary that will be help to carry out discussions internally and with third parties (e.g., Use Case projects in the EU FP7 Future Internet PPP). For a summary of terms and definitions managed at overall FI-WARE level, please refer to FIWARE Global Terms and Definitions

  • Access control: is the prevention of unauthorized use of a resource, including the prevention of use of a resource in an unauthorized manner. (ITU-T-X-800_Link). More precisely, access control is the protection of resources against unauthorized access; a process by which use of resources is regulated according to a security policy and is permitted by only authorized system entities according to that policy. RFC 2828 * Account: A (user) account is ?typically a formal business agreement for providing regular dealings and services between principal sand business service providers.? OASIS Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML)
  • Authentication (AuthN): We adopted the following definition of authentication from RFC 3588"Authentication is ?the act of verifying the identity of an entity (subject)? : TrustInCyberspace adds the term ?level of confidence? to this definition: : Authentication is the process of confirming a system entity?s asserted identity with a specified, or understood, level of confidence.? This definition holds all necessary parts to examine authentication in broad sense. First of all it does not narrow the authentication to human users, but refers to a generic ?system entity?. See authentication reference architecture description for a closer look at different identities that could be authenticated. : Secondly it introduces the often neglected concept of ?level of confidence? which applies to each authentication of an identity. No computer program or computer user can definitely prove the identity of another party. There is no authentication method that can be secured against any possible identity-theft attack, be it physical or non-physical. It is only possible to apply one or more tests, which, if passed, have been previously declared to be sufficient to go on further. The problem is to determine which tests are sufficient, and many such are inadequate. : The original Greek word originates from the word 'authentes'='author'. This leads to the general field of claims and trust management, because authentication could also mean to verify the ?author? / issuer of any claim. : The confirmation or validation process of authentication is actually done by presenting some kind of proof. This proof is normally derived from some kind of secret hold by the principal. In its simplest form the participant and the authentication authority share the same secret. More advanced concepts rely on challenge/response mechanisms, preventing the secrets to be transmitted. Refer to Authentication Technologies for a detailed list of authentication methods used today. : As stated above, each authentication method assures only some level of trust in the claimed identity, but none could be definite. Therefore it makes sense to distinguish the different authentication methods by an associated assurance level, stating the level of trust in the authentication process. : As this assurance level depends not only on the technical authentication method, but also on the overall computer system and even on the business processes within the organization (provisioning of identities and credentials), there is no ranking of the authentication methods here.
  • Authentication protocol: "Over-the-wire authentication protocols are used to exchange authentication data between the client and server application. Each authentication protocol supports one or more authentication methods. The OATH reference architecture provides for the use of existing protocols, and envisions the use of extended protocols which support new authentication methods as they are defined." (OATH)
  • Identifier: Identifiers can be understood as a dedicated, publicly known attribute of an identity that refers to that identity only. Typically, identifiers are valid within a specific domain. Special types of identifiers are valid globally, due to the use of popular domain naming and resolution protocols such as DNS, which implies addressing capabilities to the identity. OASIS Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML) defines identifier as follows: : An identifier is ?a data object (for example, a string) mapped to a system entity that uniquely refers to the system entity. A system entity may have multiple distinct identifiers referring to it. An identifier is essentially a "distinguished attribute" of an entity.?
  • Identity (Digital): The term identity and its meaning have been discussed controversially in the ?identity community? for many years. Until now, there is no commonly agreed definition of that notion. : : The IdM && AAA reference architecture applies the following three definitions of identity. : The Identity Gang defines the term digital identity as follows: : A digital identity is ?a digital representation of a set of Claims made by one party about itself or another digital subject.? : The following comments were added: : A digital identity is just one set of claims about a digital subject. For any given digital subject there will typically be many digital identities. : A digital identity can be created on the fly when a particular identity transaction is desired or persistent in a data store to provide a representation that can be referenced. : A digital identity may contain claims made by multiple claimants. : A digital identity may be signed by a digital identity provider to provide assurance to a relying party. : This definition emphasizes two facts: : Normally, a principal (subject) has multiple digital identities or personas. : Identities are made out of attributes (claims). : Therefore, the scope of identity management in the reference architecture has two viewpoints: For once it focuses on identities and personas itself, and on the other side, it deals with the attributes of these identities and personas. : The Liberty Alliance Project (LAP) defines digital identity as follows: : Digital identity is ?the essence of an entity. One?s identity is often described by one?s characteristics, among which may be any number of identifiers. A Principal may wield one or more identities.? : RSA uses the following definition of digital identity: : ?Digital identity consists of an identity assertion and the characteristics, sometimes called attributes that are collected or observed through our computerized relationships. It is often as simple as a user name and password.? : The definition of RSA adds one important aspect to the identity discussion: Even the simplest user name and password combinations without any additional attributes or claims constitute an identity.
  • Identity context: is ?the surrounding environment and circumstances that determine meaning of digital identities and the policies and protocols that govern their interactions.? (Identity Gang)
  • Identity management (IdM): comprises ?the management of identity information both internally and when it is passed from one entity to another.? Open Mobile Alliance (OMA)
  • Identity provider: The Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) defines the term identity provider (IdP) as follows - An identity provider is ?a special type of service provider [?] that creates, maintains, and manages identity information for principals, and can provide [?] assertions to other service providers within an authentication domain (or even a circle of trust).? : Another notion defines identity provider as ?an agent that issues a digital identity [that] is acting on behalf of an issuing Party.? (Identity Gang) : The following definition of identity provider descends from WS-Federation @ IBM: ?An identity provider is an entity that acts as an authentication service to end requestors and as data origin authentication service to service providers [?]. Identity providers are trusted (logical) 3rd parties which need to be trusted both by the requestor [?] and the service provider which may grant access to valuable resources and information based upon the integrity of the identity information provided by the identity provider.? : The Identity Provider is part of the Identity Management infrastructure.
  • Privacy. Dictionary definitions of privacy refer to "the quality or state of being apart from company or observation, seclusion [...] freedom from unauthorized intrusion" (Merriam-Webster online [MerrWebPriv]). In the online world, we rely on a pragmatic definition of privacy, saying that privacy is the state of being free from certain privacy threats.
  • Privacy threats. The fundamental privacy threats are: traceability (the digital traces left during transactions), linkability (profile accumulation based on the digital traces), loss of control (over personal data) and identity theft (impersonation).
  • Single sign-on: is ?From a Principal?s perspective, single sign-on encompasses the capability to authenticate with some system entity?[?] an Identity Provider - and have that authentication honored by other system entities, [termed] Service Providers [?]. Note that upon authenticating with an Identity Provider, the Identity Provider typically establishes and maintains some notion of local session state between itself and the Principal?s user agent. Service Providers may also maintain their own distinct local session state with a Principal?s user agent.? Liberty Alliance Project (LAP) |}
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